Harrington's method of dating pipe fragments by bore diameter measurement (Harrington 1954) was not used in this study, as the relevant Harrington period, 1710-50, covered virtually the entire occupancy of the area involved.

Binford's straight-line regression formula based on Harrington's work (Maxwell and Binford 1961: 107-9; Binford 1962: 19-21), however, was applied to the various layers in order to obtain comparative evidence.

SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: chronometric dating; absolute dates; absolute chronology; absolute age determination (antonym: relative dating)CATEGORY: chronology; technique DEFINITION: The determination of age with reference to a specific time scale, such as a fixed calendrical system or in years before present (B.

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His is the most important contribution made to the history of colonial American pipe making. 1733) Throughout Virginia's colonial centuries, tobacco was the economic lifeblood of the Old Dominion, and unless one rolled it to smoke as a cigar, or took it as snuff, a pipe was as necessary to its consumption as fire.

The pipe, so lily-like and weak, Does thus thy mortal soul bespeak. Pipes are known in silver, brass, pewter, iron, and even lead, but clay was the primary material and so remained until the end of the nineteenth century.

The date on a coin is an absolute date, as are AD 1492 or 501 in which the proportion of carbon isotopes is counted directly (as contrasted with the indirect Geiger counter method) using an accelerator mass spectrometer.

The method drastically reduces the quantity of datable material required.

The order of layers in this casemate from top to bottom runs from Layer 1 to Layer 12, inclusive.

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Specific changes in its amino acid structure (racemization or epimerization) which occur at a slow, relatively uniform rate, are measured after the organism's death.

The basis for the technique is the fact that almost all amino acids change from optically active to optically passive compounds (racemize) over a period of time.

The clay pipes' fragility ensured that they were broken almost as fast as they were made, and fragments are strewn across every Virginia colonial home site.

But just as few of us give much thought to what later generations might deduce from our discarded bottle caps, no one in the eighteenth century considered how a twenty-first-century archaeologist might use his broken pipe as a clue to his life and time. The characteristics of tobacco pipes changed with the years, and if an archaeologist can date those changes, so can he date the objects with which they are are found.

However, historical archaeology has tended to de-emphasize archaeometric analyses because of the availability of a documentary record.